Haemorrhoids, often known as piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal that help control stools. When these structures swell or become inflammatory, haemorrhoids form, which is a common and often bothersome condition. The major cause of haemorrhoids is increased pressure in the lower rectum, which causes the veins surrounding the anus to enlarge. Straining during bowel motions, prolonged constipation or diarrhea, obesity, and pregnancy all contribute to increased pressure. Internal haemorrhoids are located inside the rectum, while external haemorrhoids are found under the skin around the anus. Common symptoms include rectal bleeding, itching, pain, and protrusion. While moderate cases can frequently be controlled with lifestyle changes such as increased fiber consumption,topical therapies and sitz baths are common, but more severe cases may necessitate medical intervention, such as minimally invasive procedures or surgery. 

Haemorrhoids 1

Causes and risk factors

The development of haemorrhoids can be attributed to various causes and risk factors, contributing to the enlargement and inflammation of the vascular structures in the anal canal. Some common factors include:
Chronic straining during bowel movements, frequently caused by constipation or hard stools, can increase pressure in the veins surrounding the anus, increasing the development of haemorrhoids.
Chronic Diarrhea or Constipation: Prolonged diarrhea episodes or, on the other hand, prolonged periods of constipation can both lead to the development of hemorrhoids. Constipation can cause the veins to enlarge due to the strain on the rectal muscles, and it can also irritate and inflame the anal area due to frequent bowel movements.
Sitting or Standing for Prolonged Periods of Time: By causing blood to pool in the rectal veins, prolonged sitting or standing can exacerbate hemorrhoids.

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