The term “pigmentation” describes the coloring of the skin that comes from the distribution and synthesis of melanin, the pigment that determines the color of the skin, hair, and eyes. The complex balance of melanin is essential for keeping the skin healthy overall and shielding it from UV radiation’s damaging effects. On the other hand, aberrant melanin production can result in pigmentation problems, which can show up as hyperpigmentation, dark spots, or uneven skin tone. These pigmentary alterations can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, heredity, excessive sun exposure, and hormone changes. Pigmentation problems include, but are not limited to, melasma, age spots, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Even though some pigmentation changes are harmless and normal, some who want a more uniform complexion may find them to be cosmetically concerning. 

Pigmentation 1

Causes and risk factors

 Here are some key factors contributing to pigmentation issues:
UV Exposure: One of the main causes of pigmentation alterations is prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun. Melanocytes, the cells that make melanin, are stimulated by UV light, which increases the synthesis of pigment. Sunspots and freckles are two conditions that may arise from this.
Age: Changes in pigmentation may be a result of normal aging processes. Melanocytes may become less controlled as skin ages, resulting in uneven pigmentation and the appearance of liver or age spots.
Skin Type: Melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation are two pigmentation diseases that are more common in people with darker skin tones (Fitzpatrick skin types IV–VI).

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