PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome)

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a common collection of physical and mental symptoms that appear in the days or weeks preceding menstruation. PMS affects many women of reproductive age and causes a variety of symptoms such as mood swings, irritability, bloating, breast tenderness, exhaustion, and appetite disturbances. The actual origin of PMS is unknown, but hormonal fluctuations, specifically changes in estrogen and progesterone levels, are thought to have a significant impact. These hormonal fluctuations might affect neurotransmitters in the brain, causing mood-related symptoms. The severity and specific symptoms of PMS might differ greatly across individuals. PMS is a normal component of the menstrual cycle, but it can have a substantial influence on daily life for certain women. Lifestyle and dietary changes,Exercise, as well as medication, may be prescribed to reduce symptoms and enhance overall well-being. 

PMS Premenstrual Syndrome
PMS Premenstrual Syndrome 1

Causes and risk factors

Some key causes and risk factors associated with PMS include:
Hormonal Fluctuations: PMS is thought to be caused mostly by changes in hormone levels during the menstrual cycle, mainly estrogen and progesterone. The specific methods by which hormone variations affect neurotransmitters and other physiological processes that cause symptoms are complex and not entirely understood.
Serotonin Levels: Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle might alter serotonin, a neurotransmitter that governs mood. Serotonin fluctuations may contribute to irritation and mood changes.
Chemical Changes in the Brain: Changes in the amounts of certain brain chemicals, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), may be linked to PMS symptoms. 
Age and Parity: PMS symptoms are more common among women of reproductive age, with a peak in the late 20s to early 30s. Women who haven’t given birth (nulliparity) may have more severe PMS symptoms.

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