Acne is a prevalent skin disorder that affects people of all ages, but especially during puberty. It happens when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells, resulting in pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads. Acne is primarily caused by increased oil production, bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes) on the skin, plugged pores, and irritation. While acne is often associated with hormonal changes during puberty, it can persist into adulthood and be influenced by various factors such as genetics, hormonal fluctuations, certain medications, and lifestyle factors. Acne has a far-reaching impact on one’s self-esteem and emotional well-being, in addition to its physical symptoms. Fortunately, there are numerous therapies available to manage and reduce acne problems, including over-the-counter medicines, prescription medications, and dermatological procedures.


Causes and risk factors

Acne is a multifactorial skin condition influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The primary causes and risk factors contributing to the development of acne include:
Excess Oil Production (Sebum): One of the leading causes of acne is the overproduction of sebum, an oily material produced by the sebaceous glands. Excess sebum can clog pores, creating an environment prone to acne production.
Bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes): The bacterium P. acnes is naturally found on the skin. However, when pores get clogged, P. acnes can grow, causing inflammation and acne lesions.
Clogged Hair Follicles: Excess sebum and dead skin cells can combine to cause clogged hair follicles, which can lead to comedones (blackheads and whiteheads).

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